FRANKIE 发表于 2008-9-29 10:53:43

认识马来西亚

认识马来西亚
马来西亚是一个到处充满欢笑之地,其丰富多元的文化差异也让游客有很深刻的体验。这里到处都是引人入胜的旅游胜地,同时,这里的人民皆很热情和友善,应此,不论您选择何种旅游方式,她绝对可以使您体验亚洲的真髓。

马来西亚政治、经济及社会的稳定局势,使其获得很好的发展。今天的马来西亚已经是一个多元种族融合的大都会及一个充满各样机会的进步国家。在不断的现代化过程中,她仍保有丰富的文化及历史传统的遗产。

在抵达雪邦的美轮美奂的吉隆坡国际机场的那一刻起,你会很快发现马来西亚是一个万花筒世界,充满了有趣及多姿多彩的旅游胜地、人民、习俗、节庆、艺术及赏心悦目的烹调风格。
英国著名文学家及剧作家毛姆在英国王朝鼎盛时期到访槟城时,曾经说过这么一句话:“若您没看过此地,那您还不算看过世界”。

[ 本帖最后由 FRANKIE 于 2008-9-29 11:03 编辑 ]

FRANKIE 发表于 2008-9-29 10:54:25

概說馬來西亞:

  位於南中國海的馬來西亞是東南亞的中心地,南向新加坡和印尼,北接泰國,東面臨菲律賓群島。因正在赤道上方,一年四季氣候非常炎熱。這裡天然資源豐富,盛產石油、棕油、橡膠和錫礦,更以盛產熱帶水果聞名。

 

  全國分東馬與西馬兩部,共有13州,如有名的沙巴、砂勞越都是屬於它的一個州(東馬)。人口主要有三大民族,即馬來人、華人和印度人,其中馬來人佔65.14%,華人佔26.60%,印度人佔7.70%。回教是其國教,但其他如佛教、道教、基督教、印度教也很盛行,所以這裡可以說是一個觀光的寶庫。

 

政治與國體:

  馬來西亞(Federation of Malaysia)為君主立憲,採責任內閣制之聯邦,面積為330,257平方公里,其領土包括亞洲大陸最南端之馬來半島(西馬)以及婆羅洲北部(東馬)。國民所得平均為3,255美元。人口約24,530,000人。馬來語為國語,英語及華語使用普遍。馬來人大多信仰回教,法律保障馬來人政治、經濟及教育等特權。

 

氣候與溫度:

  東馬與西馬的氣候差異頗大,均屬於熱帶氣候,平均氣溫介於攝氏22至32度,白天氣溫較高,夜晚則相當涼爽。11月到翌年2月為東馬(沙巴、砂勞越)的雨季,西馬則八月為降雨高峰期。

 

國風民情:

  馬來西亞最具特色的是其多元性種族、文化、宗教的社會,除了人種複雜、語言複雜(每人至少會3種以上語言:如華語、英語、馬來語)甚至連食物也是多元化,所以在這裡,只要你想得到的,中、西餐、日本餐、印度餐、葡萄牙餐…或道地馬來食物都可品嚐到,民族服飾更是五花八門。

   

  這裡諸多種族雖然都能和平相處,但熱帶的馬來人天性較懶散,錢賺夠了今天花就不管明天,而華僑較勤快,所以此地的華人也較為當地人富有。在這裡人們最不感興趣的是政治,人人樂天知命,是名附其實的種族大鎔爐。

 

  “四季皆夏一雨成秋”是此地氣候的寫照,人們也已能習以為常了。在首都吉隆坡由於建築充滿異國情調,你會錯以為置身在中東,但到了某些鄉鎮或中國城,那氣氛和所見所聞,你又會以為回到了台灣呢!

 

  衣著服裝:

  馬國四季如夏,以質輕棉、麻類混紡的衣料為宜,至高地則需備薄毛衣。平常男性穿襯衫,正式場合穿馬國傳統服飾巴迪(Batik)或西裝,參加晚宴女性須著禮服,並建議出門隨身攜帶雨具。馬國女性多不使用陽傘。

FRANKIE 发表于 2008-9-29 10:55:01

馬來西亞小檔案:
面積:330.000平方公里。

 

人口:2.450萬人左右。

 

種族:除了馬來人、華人、印度人,尚有塔耶柯族、卡達森族(西南部原住民)、賽米族(中部高地土著)、東馬的達柯巴奴亞族、華人、印度人。

 

首都:吉隆坡KualaLumpur。

 

宗教:回教是國教,華人大多信仰佛教與道教,另外基督教與印度教也有部分人員信仰。

 

時差:與台灣同一時區無時差。

 

貨幣:馬幣MYR 1m$=nt$9.8。

 

匯率:目前美元兌換率US$1=RM3.8。

 

語言:馬來語為國語,英語、華語(國台語)、廣東話也通用。

 

氣候:近赤道,屬熱帶性氣候,年均溫23-34℃。

 

機場:梳邦國際機場。

 

電壓:220V、50HZ插頭。

 

簽證:有單次或多次觀光簽證(效期章於入境時核發,期限約二個月),單次或多次商務簽證,為期14天之落地簽證。申請簽證所需時間2個工作天。落地簽證可在馬國機場辦理,簽證費用為RM50,需時30分鐘至1小時,若係隨團者,最好在國內辦妥馬國簽證。

 

交通:從機場至市中心車程約1小時的車程。您可在吉隆坡國際機場可搭乘高速火車,票價為RM35,35分鐘可達吉隆坡中央車站,另可搭乘機場Limousine 汽車。記得車輛是靠左行駛的。

 

購物:馬國的購物從大型百貨公司到街頭小店或地攤等,應有盡有,且除了百貨公司有標售價外,其他商店均可殺價。

 

特產:錫製品、銀、銅製品、batik傳統服裝、珠寶飾物以及陶器。相機、筆、手錶、化妝品、香水以及電器品在馬國皆為免稅品。

 

免稅區:Labuan 以及Langkawi兩島為免稅區。   

 

通訊:行動電話分GSM 900與1800 兩種系統,Maxis與Celcom為主要電信公司。台灣的中華電信、遠傳電信與台灣大哥大公司的行動電話,在此均可提供國際漫遊服務。

FRANKIE 发表于 2008-9-29 10:55:35

旅遊景點介紹
主要城市與地區:

一、吉隆坡Kuala Lumpur(簡稱KL)馬來語意是“泥濘的河口”,它位在巴生河Klang和Gombok河的匯流處之南。是馬來西亞的首都,也是集亞洲及世界之大成的都市,市容上充滿異國情調,巍峨壯麗的摩爾式王宮、車站,回教風格的建築物到處可見。

 

旅遊景點:

1、市區觀光-皇宮、國會大廈、火車站、獨立廣場、市政大樓。

2、中國城(唐人街)是市內最富地方色彩的地區,店舖全是華僑熟悉的草藥、糕餅、日用品,大部分商店黃昏才開市。

3、湖濱公園-在市區南方,內有蘭花園和鹿場,公園盡頭即國家紀念碑。

4、國立博物院-在公園入口,是棟老式馬來風格建築,收藏馬國歷史文物、服飾、各類動物標本及錫、橡木等陳列。

5、國家回教寺院-位於火車站附近,是一座白色建築,周圍有水塘、噴泉,圓頂中央尖塔70餘公尺高,禮拜堂可容納8.000餘人。

6、黑風洞-乃印度人供奉的聖地。

7、雲頂高原-位於吉隆坡北部50公里處,因海拔高(6.000呎以上)氣候涼爽、景緻宜人,1971年還闢建出一處森林遊樂區,此地更以一座國際賭場而聞名全球,所以有南洋蒙地卡羅之稱。

8、迪克森海灘。

 

二、馬六甲Malacca-位於西馬半島西南,吉隆坡以南150公里處,面臨馬六甲海峽,是一座經過歷史洗禮的古都,擁有中央、亞羅牙也及野新3縣。15世紀時曾是一個在東方享有盛名的王國,由於地處歐亞海上航道之要衝,扼馬六甲海峽咽喉,曾被葡萄牙、荷蘭和英國據為殖民地,所以市內保留了各國建築的不同風格,洋溢著異國情調。

 

旅遊景點:

1、馬來西亞縮影文化村。

2、馬六甲州回教堂。

3、聖約翰山上的聖約翰碉堡。

4、聖保羅山(原名升旗山)、獨立廣場、獨立宣言紀念館。

5、聖地牙哥要塞。

6、紅屋區-馬六甲荷蘭城。

7、我們的紅屋-斯特達斯荷蘭舊總督府。

8、紅教堂。

9、青年博物館。

10、青雲亭。

 

三、檳城Penang-也叫檳榔嶼,是馬來西亞西北部一個島嶼,也是馬國第二大城市,有印度洋綠寶石雅稱(島上種滿了檳榔樹),名勝古蹟特別多,尤以神蛇盤據的蛇廟和臥佛寺最值一訪,臥佛寺內有33公尺長的世界第三大睡佛,另外就是亞洲最長的跨海大橋-橫跨馬六甲海峽的檳城大橋,全長13.5公里。檳城的美食花樣多、色香味俱全,可說洋洋大觀,夜生活也是非常熱鬧。這裡幾乎每月都有某一民族的宗教慶典。

 

四、怡保-霹靂州之首府,錫礦產地,還有著名的萬里望花生和柚子,而最聞名的還是天然岩洞霹靂洞、三寶洞和南天洞。

 

五、哥打峇魯-是個獨特的城鎮,除了可以體驗寧靜的鄉間生活,這裡的水果食品、頭飾、峇迪染布、刺繡布、銀器、風箏、皮影戲、三輪車都別具一格。

 

六、關丹-位於馬來半島東海岸,仍保存著純樸的大馬文化,除了風土文物,美麗的村落和白色海灘也令人難忘懷。

 

七、瓜拉丁加奴州-位於哥打峇魯與關丹之間,早期是典型的魚鎮,如今已是個石油中心,三輪車是市內交通工具,可至丁加奴河岸租船到朴實小島,參觀當地居民祖傳的造船技藝。

 

八、吉蘭丹州-在東海岸北部與泰國相連。

 

九、吉打州-馬國穀倉,沿岸有70多個島嶼,最有名的是蘭卡威。

 

十、邦喀島-是風光如畫的世外桃源,位於馬六甲海峽上,是渡假戲水的好去處。

 

十一、浮羅交怡群島-由99個島嶼組成的傳奇之島,位於檳城以北,這裡出產優質胡椒。浮羅交怡是群島中最大的,傳說此島被詛咒7代,如今7代已過,但此地仍瀰漫著不可知的神秘氣息。孕婦島是浮羅交怡的第二大島,島上也有許多神秘傳說。

 

十二、玻璃市-是馬來最北也是最小的一州,乃魚米之鄉,與泰國交界,是一個地勢低四面石灰岩林立的城市。

 

十三、東馬沙巴洲與砂勞越洲另有專區介紹:詳細資料內容請進入沙巴旅遊專區、砂勞越旅遊專區。周邊還有一個值得您前往的旅遊的國家-汶萊,歡迎進入汶萊旅遊專區。

FRANKIE 发表于 2008-9-29 10:56:04

馬來西亞旅遊注意事項
旅遊注意事項:

01、吸食、攜帶、栽種、運送毒品在此地是重罪,最重可處以死刑、無期徒刑及不少於10下之鞭刑。

02、如欲攜帶古董出境,必事先申請許可,以免違反法令。

03、進入寺院參觀必先脫掉鞋子,女士須披上黑色頭紗。

04、此地有規模的酒店、百貨行都接受國際信用卡。

05、主要城市自來水雖可生飲,但多數人仍喝開水或礦泉水,我們也建議您不要生飲。

06、有些場合如雲頂賭場需著正式服裝,男士需穿長袖打領帶,在海拔高處早晚較涼需帶件外套。

07、此地飯店大都沒有牙刷、牙膏與拖鞋,記得請自備。

08、自1998年起,馬國實施外匯管制,旅客出入境攜帶馬幣最高金額以RM1.000為限,外幣則可自由攜入,惟外幣攜出境額度不得超過攜入境之金額。出入境攜帶外幣低於RM10,000等值時,不必申報。

09、馬來菜大多以海鮮、牛肉與雞肉為主,生菜沙拉以花生醬為佐料。一般而言,馬國小吃店或路邊攤之飲食衛生較差,不過在大城市餐館均可安心食用。魚肉類及蔬菜均應熟食,水果食用前應先去皮。

10、本地車速高,靠左行駛,紅綠燈少,國人在市區遊覽穿越馬路,須注意雙方來車。此地摩托車容許在車陣中快速穿梭,國人在此駕車或步行均應小心。

11、落地簽證可在馬國機場辦理,簽證費用為RM50,需時30分鐘至1小時,若係隨團者,最好在國內辦妥馬國簽證。

12、絕對禁止:1.自以色列進口物品。2.無醫師處方之藥物或禁藥。3.武器。4.色情書刊。5.印有可蘭經文之布料或衣物。

13、落地簽證可在馬國機場辦理,簽證費用為RM50,需時30分鐘至1小時,但若係隨團者,建議您最好在國內辦妥馬國簽證。

14、馬國嚴格執行單一國籍,同時擁有馬國國籍者,進出馬國國門,面對馬國移民局官員,需審慎應對,避免同時出示我國及馬國護照,致我國護照遭馬方沒收,突增困擾。

FRANKIE 发表于 2008-9-29 10:56:36

马来西亚风情
国庆日
8月31日

重要节日
马来西亚节日很多,全国大大小小的节日约有上百个。但政府规定的全国性节日只有10个,其中除少数有固定日期外,其余的具体日期由政府在前一年统一公布。主要节日有:元旦、开斋节(穆斯林)、春节(华人)、哈芝节(穆斯林)、屠妖节(印度人)、“五一”节、圣诞节、卫塞节、现任最高元首诞辰。8月31日为马来西亚国庆(又称独立日)。

灾难意识日:12月26日(2005年马来西亚政府决定设立。选择这一天作为全国“灾难意识日”,是因为马来西亚过去在这一天多次遭受自然灾难的袭击。1996年这一天,东马来西亚的沙巴州遭受强烈热带风暴袭击,有100多人死亡,许多房屋和财产被毁;2004年12月26日,马来西亚北部槟榔屿等州部分地区遭到印度洋海啸袭击,共有60多人死亡。)

国家格言
团结就是力量(马来文:Bersekutu Bertambah
【马来西亚的旅游资源】
[编辑本段]

沙巴可以是马来西亚深藏未露的绝妙旅游地,见识了沙巴,你就会惊讶马来西亚丰富的旅游资源. 世外桃源邦咯岛(PangkorLaut) 寻找小丑鱼。

在马来西亚的邦咯岛(PangkorLaut)上,你只要潜入蔚蓝的海里,慢慢靠近大片的白色珊瑚和色彩斑斓的海葵,尼莫和他的朋友就会热情地欢迎你。

生活在马来西亚婆罗洲的普南族是一个神秘的民族,他们生活在热带雨林里,保持着许多有趣的风俗传统。

马来西亚的风格就像这儿的天气——热情。无论是看到一张张友善的笑脸,听到一句句浓浓的马来音普通话“你好!(Apa khabar?)”

亚庇是马来西亚砂捞越的首府。在砂捞越里有个叫“古晋”的城市。在马来语中,“古晋”(Kuncing)就是“猫”,因此这座城市也被称为“猫城”。据,这里是世界上唯一崇拜猫的城市。

中国人来,马来西亚不是个陌生的国度。尽管是异域,但随处可见的华文招牌以及通用的广州话,会让来自广东的我们产生了在省内某个都市观光的错觉。

槟城,当年英国商船来此躲避风浪的时候,他们给这个美丽的海岛起名为乔治市,华人则称之为槟榔屿。这里最让人着迷的是各种文化的交融聚集,既有南海姑娘的轻柔韵律,也有安娜与国王的感伤情怀。即使你没有出境游的经验,即使你外语只会yes,bye-bye,thankyou,槟城依然。

砂捞越是马来西亚最大的州,分散着27种部落民族,是一个多文化的地域。在沙捞越,每公顷的树林种类比整个北美洲还多,一棵参天大树上有上千种昆虫。

吉隆坡的夜生活充满动感,到处是多姿多彩的娱乐,爵士乐、乡谣和西方音乐萦绕酒吧、的士高舞厅,一派大都会的繁华景象.。吉隆坡住宿选择相当多,高档的诸如马来王宫风格的伊思塔那大饭店,机场附近的高尔夫休假区等,主要供游客和商务客人使用。在吉隆坡可以品尝到世界各地的名菜,除了马来菜、中国菜、印度大餐、西餐外,还有巴基斯坦餐饮和日本料理。吉隆坡各种商品荟萃,从古董到最具当地特色的手工艺品,从世界名牌时装到物美价廉的电子产品……

云顶(Genting Highlands)高原是马来西亚新开发的旅游和避暑胜地,位于鼓亨州西南吉保山脉中段东坡(蒂蒂旺沙山脉),吉隆坡东北约50公里处.

在首都吉隆坡,最引人注目的建筑就是位于市中心丹也大楼面的国家清真寺(NatlonalMosque),以独特的现代设计表达出传统回教的艺术,装饰和设计都十分精美,最大特色是伞形的屋顶,象征一个独立国家的抱负.

吉隆坡是世界上节假日最多的地区之一。在马来西亚,伊斯兰教的节日是当地进行重大庆典活动的日子,圣诞节也是全国性的节假日,一年一度的中国春节在这里更是热闹非凡.

吉隆坡是一个硕大无比的“世界建筑博览馆”,外形别致风格各异的建筑遍布全城.

马来西亚的旅游资源十分丰富,阳光充足,气候宜人

马来西亚是个以农立国的民族,因此维持着许多原始信仰,特别是各民族浓厚的宗教色彩。其宗教融合了伊斯兰教、印度教、佛教,其中以印度教影响尤为深远。由于多民族的长期共同生活,形成一种多元的文化特色.

FRANKIE 发表于 2008-9-29 10:57:23

【马来西亚的旅游资源】
【马来西亚的旅游资源】
沙巴可以是马来西亚深藏未露的绝妙旅游地,见识了沙巴,你就会惊讶马来西亚丰富的旅游资源. 世外桃源邦咯岛(PangkorLaut) 寻找小丑鱼。

在马来西亚的邦咯岛(PangkorLaut)上,你只要潜入蔚蓝的海里,慢慢靠近大片的白色珊瑚和色彩斑斓的海葵,尼莫和他的朋友就会热情地欢迎你。

生活在马来西亚婆罗洲的普南族是一个神秘的民族,他们生活在热带雨林里,保持着许多有趣的风俗传统。

马来西亚的风格就像这儿的天气——热情。无论是看到一张张友善的笑脸,听到一句句浓浓的马来音普通话“你好!(Apa khabar?)”

亚庇是马来西亚砂捞越的首府。在砂捞越里有个叫“古晋”的城市。在马来语中,“古晋”(Kuncing)就是“猫”,因此这座城市也被称为“猫城”。据,这里是世界上唯一崇拜猫的城市。

中国人来,马来西亚不是个陌生的国度。尽管是异域,但随处可见的华文招牌以及通用的广州话,会让来自广东的我们产生了在省内某个都市观光的错觉。

槟城,当年英国商船来此躲避风浪的时候,他们给这个美丽的海岛起名为乔治市,华人则称之为槟榔屿。这里最让人着迷的是各种文化的交融聚集,既有南海姑娘的轻柔韵律,也有安娜与国王的感伤情怀。即使你没有出境游的经验,即使你外语只会yes,bye-bye,thankyou,槟城依然。

砂捞越是马来西亚最大的州,分散着27种部落民族,是一个多文化的地域。在沙捞越,每公顷的树林种类比整个北美洲还多,一棵参天大树上有上千种昆虫。

吉隆坡的夜生活充满动感,到处是多姿多彩的娱乐,爵士乐、乡谣和西方音乐萦绕酒吧、的士高舞厅,一派大都会的繁华景象.。吉隆坡住宿选择相当多,高档的诸如马来王宫风格的伊思塔那大饭店,机场附近的高尔夫休假区等,主要供游客和商务客人使用。在吉隆坡可以品尝到世界各地的名菜,除了马来菜、中国菜、印度大餐、西餐外,还有巴基斯坦餐饮和日本料理。吉隆坡各种商品荟萃,从古董到最具当地特色的手工艺品,从世界名牌时装到物美价廉的电子产品……

云顶(Genting Highlands)高原是马来西亚新开发的旅游和避暑胜地,位于鼓亨州西南吉保山脉中段东坡(蒂蒂旺沙山脉),吉隆坡东北约50公里处.

在首都吉隆坡,最引人注目的建筑就是位于市中心丹也大楼面的国家清真寺(NatlonalMosque),以独特的现代设计表达出传统回教的艺术,装饰和设计都十分精美,最大特色是伞形的屋顶,象征一个独立国家的抱负.

吉隆坡是世界上节假日最多的地区之一。在马来西亚,伊斯兰教的节日是当地进行重大庆典活动的日子,圣诞节也是全国性的节假日,一年一度的中国春节在这里更是热闹非凡.

吉隆坡是一个硕大无比的“世界建筑博览馆”,外形别致风格各异的建筑遍布全城.

马来西亚的旅游资源十分丰富,阳光充足,气候宜人

马来西亚是个以农立国的民族,因此维持着许多原始信仰,特别是各民族浓厚的宗教色彩。其宗教融合了伊斯兰教、印度教、佛教,其中以印度教影响尤为深远。由于多民族的长期共同生活,形成一种多元的文化特色.

【马来西亚旅游景点】
[编辑本段]

马门甲
马门甲是马来西亚历史最悠久的古城,马六甲州的首府。它位于马六甲海峡北岸,马六甲河穿城而过。该城始建于1403年,曾是满刺加王国的都城。从16世纪起,历受葡萄牙、荷兰、英国的殖民统治。数百年来,华人、印度人、阿拉伯人、暹罗人及爪哇人相继来到马六甲,经过长期的交流,语言、宗教、风俗习惯等汇成特有的文化风貌。这里有中国式的住宅,荷兰式的红色楼房和葡萄牙式的村落。市内古代修建的街道,至今依然保存较好,街道曲折狭窄,屋宇参差多样,很多住房的墙上镶着图案精美的瓷砖,木门上装着瑞狮门扣,窗上镶龙嵌凤,古色古香,处处显示出马六甲这个历史古都的独特风貌。

青云亭
青云亭是马来西亚最古老的中国庙宇,位于马六甲市西南,始建于1645年,后经重新装修,成为一座用马来西亚楠木建造的木结构庙宇。门口的匾额上写着“南海飞来”四个大字。庙内主要供奉的是观音菩萨,因此也称“观音亭”。
青云亭是优美的中国式建筑的典范,庙堂里陈设的木雕和漆器,全是从中国运来的精品。寺内只有一块石碑,上面铭刻着纪念中国明代著名的航海家、三保太监郑和于1406年访问马六甲的事迹。郑和是到达马六甲最早的中国人。
寺内香火甚盛。庙门口有一金色的狮子,周身金光耀眼,只有狮子的头顶部,金色已脱落,原来信徒们认为走过狮子身旁,抚摸它们的头顶,会带来意想不到的好运。

中国山
中国山又名三保山,是马来西亚为纪念中国明朝三保太监郑和而命名的。此山位于马六甲市郊。关于中国山,流传着“一位中国公主和一口神奇的井”的故事。相传在15世纪60年代,马六甲的统治者是一个年 轻而聪明过人的苏丹,曼斯国王。有一天,一艘中国船驶抵马六甲,船的内部到处插满了金针,船长给苏丹送去一封信,声称他奉中国天子之命诏告苏丹 “每一根金针代表我的一个臣民,要是你能数得清有多少根,你就会知道我的权力有多大。”苏丹接到信后,派了一艘船去送回信,船上装了好几袋谷米,信中道“要是你能数得清这艘船上的谷米,你就能准确地猜到我有多少臣民,也就会知道我的权力有多大。”

荷兰红屋
跨越马六甲河桥,到了河的东岸,映入眼帘的是一个整洁的广场,广场上有一座红色的钟塔和维多利亚时代所建的喷水池。广场周围都是荷兰式的红色建筑物。面广场最大的一座建筑物就是古老的荷兰式惹兰叻参红屋。它建于17世纪,是东南亚地区现存的最古老的荷兰式建筑物。300多年来,它一直是政府机关所在地,直至1980年才改为马六甲博物馆。荷兰式惹兰叻参红屋有厚厚的红砖墙,笨重的硬木门,门前是宽阔的石级。馆内保留了马六甲各个时期的历史遗物,包括荷兰古代兵器,葡萄牙人16世纪以来的服装,马来人婚嫁服饰,金、银、珠宝手工艺品以及在马六甲港口停泊的各类古代船只的图片等。馆内还收藏有稀有的古代钱币和邮票。

葡萄牙城山
在马六甲市西南,接近马六甲河口,有一座山,是马六甲苏丹拜里米苏拉将中国明成祖赠送的金龙文笺勒石树碑之处,明成祖曾封此山为“镇国山”,后名圣保罗山。山的东南麓有一座“没有墙的城门”,那是马来西业历史遗迹。

FRANKIE 发表于 2008-9-29 10:59:07

马来西亚宗教和风俗习惯
马来西亚为君主立宪制国家。主要由马来族、华族和印巴族三大民族组成。他们的宗教、文化和风俗习惯各异。马来人90%以上信仰伊斯兰教,华人多信仰佛教和道教,印巴人则信仰印度教。马宪法中明文规定伊斯兰教为马官方宗教。马来西亚的穆斯林多属逊尼派。

  马来穆斯林一般较虔诚,每天都祈祷五次,到麦加朝圣过的人倍受尊敬。回历九月是斋月,马来人一般情况下均昼禁夜食,只有年老体弱多病、孕妇或外出旅行者可例外。马来人平时一般忌讳用左手,习惯用右手用餐或接受别人的东西。通常男士不主动与女士握手。马来人普遍喜好辣食,忌食猪肉,不饮烈性酒,在正式场合也不敬酒。马来人最禁忌的动物是猪,但喜爱猫。

  清真寺是穆斯林举行宗教仪式的地方,对外开放时,女士需穿长袍及戴头巾。否则将被拒之门外。马来人男女传统礼服分别是:男士为无领上衣,下着长裤,腰围短纱笼,头戴“宋谷”无边帽,脚穿皮鞋。女士礼服也为上衣和纱笼,衣宽如袍,头披单色鲜艳纱巾。马来人男女礼服和便服都有一个共同的特点,即又宽又长,遮手盖脚且色彩鲜艳,图案别致,样式美观。目前打工族为了工作穿着方便,一般着轻便的西服,只在工余在家或探亲访友或在重大节日时,才着传统服装。在各种正式场合,男士着装除民族服装或西服外,可穿长袖巴迪衫。巴迪衫是一种蜡染花布做成的长袖上衣,质地薄而凉爽,现已渐渐取代传统的马来礼服,成为马来西亚“国服”。在马来西亚除皇室成员外,一般不穿黄色衣饰。

FRANKIE 发表于 2008-9-29 11:06:53

Malaysian Geology
Tectonically, Peninsular Malaysia forms part of the Sunda Shield. Its Triassic fold-mountain belt, the spine of the Peninsula, continues from eastern Burma through Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, the Banka and Billiton Islands, and eastwards into Indonesian Borneo. All the systems, ranging from the Cambrian to the Quaternary, are represented in Peninsular Malaysia. The Triassic and older strata are essentially marine whereas the post- Triassic rocks are characteristically non-marine. Sedimentation was continuous throughout the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic. Because of the instability of the basin major breaks are apparent within and between the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Cainozoic groups of rocks. Granitoids occupy almost half the peninsula, commonly forming topographic highs, notably in the Main Range. The main episode of granitic emplacement coincides with the culminating late Triassic orogenic event during which all the older strata were folded and deformed.

Regional metamorphism is widespread and most of the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks show slight to moderate deformation but the grade has never been higher than green schist facies. The contact metamorphosed rocks generally form narrow aureoles around the igneous bodies. The major mineralisation occurred during the granitic emplacement and commonly associated with faulting. Faulting is common in all rocks. At least three sets of faults have been recognised on a regional scale, the youngest of which is at most post-Early Cretaceous in age.

The Machinchang Formation in the northwest part of the peninsula provides the oldest evidence of sedimentation. It consists of shallow-water, current-bedded deposits in the Langkawi Island. The extent of the basin could have transgressed as far as Malacca, by Ordovician times. By Silurian times thick successions of limestone and graptolitic shales were laid down. Volcanic activities also occurred and mainly acidic tuffs were deposited in Kedah and northern Perak. During the Devonian, sediments continued to be deposited, they occur as a thick succession of limestone in central Perak and as clastics in the northwest. East of the Main Range in the foothill regions of western Pahang and southwestern Kelantan, they consist of graptolitic shales, cherts quartzites and intraformational conglomerates with minor intrusives of ophiolitic rocks. Sediments of the Upper Paleozoic, e.g. the Kenny Hill Formation, Singa Formation, and Kati Formation are unconformable over the Lower Palaeozoic sequences.

Thick formations of Lower Carboniferous limestone in central Pahang and carbonaceous shales with limestone lenses in east Pahang provide the earliest indications of the formation of the basin to the east of the Main Range. Sedimentation here was typically shallow marine and, in Kelantan, was probably continuous till the Early Permian. The Sediments deposi ted consist of four main facies, viz: (i) argillaceous, (ii) volcanic, (iii) calcareous and (iv) arenaceous. Here, sedimentation with inter- mittent volcanism appears to have continued from Carboniferous through the Permian to the Triassic. The general relationship of the Trias with the Permian is one of unconformity. However, in Kelantan, Lower Triassic beds most probably overlie the uppermost Permian conformably. Lower Triassic limestones are common, but following that, the strata became more arenaceous and argillaceous in character. The Middle and Upper Trias are characteri s e d by a flysch-type-sedimentation . Widespread volcanic activity with the eruption of andesite and other intermediate to acid tuffs and lavas occurred in the axial basin. The Upper Triassic orogeny which was also accompanied by granitic intrusions brought an end to marine sedimentation in the Peninsula.

Post-Triassic sediments are essentially continental in character and are described as molasses. These Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous sediments in the Malay Peninsula overlie the older rocks with marked unconformity. The sedimentary basins occupy a zone on the eastern portion of the peninsula from Gunung Gagau in the north to Gunung Panti in the south. The sediments consisting essentially of sandstone, conglomerate and shales with minor coal seams and volcanics, show fluvial, lalcustrine and deltaic conditions of deposition.

The Tertiary rocks are distributed onshore as isolated lacustrine basins underlying the Quaternary deposits and offshore areas mainly as thick continental areno-argillaceous sequences. The Quaternary deposits which consist mainly of unconsolidated to semiconsolidated gravel, sand, clay and silt occupy the coastal terrains and floors of some of the inland valleys. In the Kinta and Klang Valleys, the alluvium contains valuable concentrations of tin ore.

Petroleum is the most valuable mineral resource. It is found in the Malay Basin, off the coast of Terengganu.

Tin ore is found in many parts of Peninsular Malaysia and is richest in the Kinta, Batang Padang, Batang Berjuntai and Klang Valley. Base metals like copper, lead and zinc are known in Ulu Sokor (Kelantan), Tasik Chini and the Mengapur area (Pahang). Gold is found along the central axial belt from Kelantan (Sungai Pergau, Sungai Galas) to Pahang (Merapoh, Kuala Lipis, Raub), Terengganu (Lubuk Mandi), Negeri Sembilan and Johor (Gunung Ledang).

There is potential of tungsten in Kedah and Terengganu. Iron ore is mined on a very small scale from mines in Pahang, Kedah, Perak and Johor. Very small tonnages of low-grade manganese deposits are found in Sungai Aring and Gual Periok in Kelantan and Machang Setahun in Terengganu.

Rare earth minerals such as monazite, xenotime, rutile, struverite, ilmenite and zircon are recovered as by products of tin-mining. A deposit of two million tonnes of ilrmenite are found near Kampung Ajil, Terengganu. Silica sand is exploited from beaches in Johor and mine tailings in Selangor and Perak. There is potential of high grade beach silica sand deposits in Terengganu. Barite is mined in Pahang, Kelantan and Terengganu.

Bauxite is presently mined only in Penggarang, Johor. There exist potential reserves of 17 million tonnes in the Jabor valley, Terengganu and 50 million tonnes at Bukit Goh, Pahang. Small deposits occur in Tanah Mas (Melaka), Batu Pahat, Endau, Sri Medan and Lenga in Johor. Kaolin is presently exploited in the Bidor area of Perak and the Jemaluang area of Johor. There is very good potential for ball cla y within the coastal alluvial flats of the country.

Sabah, situated at the northern tip of Borneo Island, is geologically complex. The oldest rocks are the Early Triassic metamorphic rocks (amphibolites, genisses, meta tuffaceous and meta-volcanics) of the Crystalline Basement, found mainly in eastern Sabah. Large bodies of granite, granodiorite, tonalite, ultramafic and mafic rocks intrude into the metamorphic rocks. The ultramafic bodies are distinctly elongated and commonly aligned east-west along the general metamorphic foliation trend.

During Early Cretaceous time, limestone was deposited in several localities on an emerging basement in eastern Sabah. By Late Cretaceous time, thick clastic and calcareous sediments, chert, limestone and volcanic rocks were deposited over a large part of eastern, central, and southwest Sabah and part of northern Sabah. Deposition was continuous up to Eocene time.

By early Tertiary, an elongated northeast trending marine trough already existed extending from the Kalimantan border into western and northern Sabah, and deposition of thick sequences of sandstone and mudstone occurred uninterrupted into the Upper Miocene when it was terminated by folding and uplift, accompanied by the intrusion of the Kinabahu Batholith.

FRANKIE 发表于 2008-9-29 11:08:12

During this major Late Miocene tectonic event, slump deposits and pyroclastics accumulated in several deep basins in eastern Sabah, followed by the deposition of sandstone and mudstone with minor amounts of limestone and coal in a chain of circular to sub-circular shallow basins. Rapid uplift in Late Miocene time resulted in the formation of conglomerate at Lahad Datu and cessation of deposition in the area, except in the easternmost part-the Dent Peninsula-where Pliocene sediments were deposited in coastal swamps and shallow- marine waters.

From the Late Miocene to Quaternary time, extensive volcanism and associated shallow intrusions along the Semporna Peninsula and a batholith-size granitic intrusion at Gunung Kinabalu occurred. The post- tectonic volcanic rocks that erupted in the Semporna Peninsula are typical of the calc-alkaline Pacific island arc type, being rich in soda-lime feldspar and generally low in potash. The early eruptions are mainly andesite, dacite and basalt. Several volcanic cones are still recognisable, and hot springs-remnants of volcanism- occur at several places in the peninsula.

Quarternary deposits, consisting of coarse gravel, sand, silt, clay, peat and coral accumulated along the coast and are now found in raised terraces and in inland plains in Tenom, Klias, Padas valley, and the Sook- Keningau plains.

Most metallic mineral deposits and occurrences in Sabah occur along a central belt stretching from the northern islands of Banggi and Malawali, through Taritipan, Gunung Kinabalu and the Labuk valley to the upper Segama valley-Darvel Bay area and Semporna Peninsula. The only operating mine, Mamut Copper Mining Sdn. Bhd., is situated along this belt. Industrial minerals consisting mainly of limestone, silica, clay, and constructional stones are mainly found outside this belt. Oil and gas are found offshore of the east and west coasts. Coal is found in Tertiary sedimentary basins in south-central Sabah.

Mineralisation is associated with four main groups of rocks, namely, the Crystalline Basement, the ophiolite suite, the young volcanic and associated hypabyssal rocks, and the granitic intrusions.

Copper sulphides have been found in the pre- Triassic Crystalline Basement schists in the upper Segama area, and silver mineralisation is found associated with schistose and doleritic rocks of the basement. Alluvial gold occurs in several rivers, especially the Segama and Diwata rivers, which drain areas underlain by the basement rocks. The auriferous alluvium in the Segama valley also contains detrital native platinum. The sources of gold are thought to be the acidic intrusives of the Crystalline Basement.

Nickel, chromium, iron, pyrhotite, and copper sulphides are associated with the Cretaceous-Miocene ophiolitic rocks which are found in the upper Segama- Darvel Bay area, the Labuk valley, around Gunung Kinabalu, in Taritipan, and in the northern islands. Platinum group metals occur as inclusions in chromite found associated with the basic igneous rocks of the ophiolite suite. Bauxite is developed from these rocks in places; in Sungai Mansan it is formed from gabbro.

Epithermal gold and lead-zinc-copper mineralisations are found in the Pliocene volcanic rocks and associated hypabyssal rocks in the Semporna Peninsula (Bukit Mantri and Nagos). Porphyry copper deposits at Mamut and Gunung Nungkok are closely associated with Miocene-Pliocene granitic intrusions in the Kinabalu area.

Montmorillonitic clay is found in the Miocene volcano-sedimentary strata in the Sandakan, Dent Peninsula and Tawau areas, and kaolinitic clay in the Plio- Pleistocene formations on the south west coast of Sabah.

Only one metalliferous deposit is being mined at present. Several other promising deposits, such as the Gunung Nungkok Copper Prospect, the Tavai nickeliferous iron deposit, and the Karang Copper Prospect, have been investigated in detail, but were found to be uneconomic to mine at present. Two Cyprus-type massive sulphide deposits in the lower Labuk valley (west Sualog and Kiabau) were discovered during 1983 to 1985. Many coal seams, some of economic thickness, were discovered in the Maliau Basin and surrounding Tertiary sedimentary strata in recent years. Numerous other occurrences of copper, asbestos, chromium, gold, iron, nickel, lead, zinc, silica, and manganese have also been found. Oil and gas are found on the west and east coasts. Oil production started in 1974 from an offshore well on the west coast where all the present producing wells are situated.

In Sarawak, the oldest formations go back only some 300 million years, and so barely one-sixth of the world's recorded geological history is represented here. These ancient rocks form part of the West Borneo Basement which is the exposed part of the Sunda Shield in Southwest Borneo, and is thus related to continental South-East Asia. The Basement is built up of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks. Most of Sarawak, however, is underlain by younger Tertiary sedimentary rocks especially the region northeast of the Lupar river.

Among the more prominent geomorphorlogical landforms are the many caves developed in limestone formations including the famed Niah Caves and Mulu Caves; and the high waterfalls developed over Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Usun Apau Plateau and Hose Mountains in the interior of the state.

The Mulu Caves developed in the Melinau Limestone of Tertiary age stakes its claim as one of the most spectacular cave systems of the world. Located in the Mulu National Park, some 100 km west of Miri town, it boasts of having the world's largest cave passage (the Deer Cave). the world's largest natural rock chamber (the Sarawak Chamber) and the longest cave system in South- East Asia (the Clearwater Cave).

Petroleum and gas are by far the most important min eral resources and production comes from offshore fields in the northern part of the state.

Gold is mined in the Bau area and there is potential for further discoveries in old gold workings in the area, and in the Lundu-Sematan and Marup areas of west Sarawak.

Coal is abundantly found in the state and occurs in four main Tertiary coal basins: the Silantek, the MeritPila, the Mukah-Balingian and the Bintulu coal fields. A total resource of about 730 million tonnes have been identified of which 171 million tonnes are measured reserve, 101 tonnes indicated and 456 tonnes inferred Coal from the Merit-Pila field is presently being mined whereas redevelopment of the underground mine at Silantek is currently being undertaken.

To date (1995), 42 deposits of mainly high quality silica sand with an estimated reserve of about 54 million tonnes have been identified in the state. The deposits are found chiefly in the coastal region of the Kuching (Lundu-Semantan), Samarahan (Roban), Sibu (Lebaan), Bintulu (Bintulu, Suai, Similijau) and Miri (Baram valley) Divisions. Silica sand is presently be mined and processed by two plants located in the Bintulu and Lundu-Semantan areas and up to 1994 about 3.4 million tonnes of processed silice sand have been exported.

Kaolinitic and ball clays suitable for use in the ceramic and related industries are extensively found in the Kuching, Sarikei and Sibu Divisions. To date (1995), 9 deposits of kaolinitic clay with an estimated reserve of about 22 million tonnes and 24 deposits of ball clay with an estimated reserve of about 38 million tonnes have been identified.The major deposits are found in the Balai Ringin-Abok are (19 millions tonnes, kaolinitic clay), Sarikei-Bintangor are (18 millions tonnes, ball clay) and Sibu area (16 millions tonnes, ball clay).

Constructional stones of several rocks types including igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are quarried for use by the constructional industry. Good quality igneous rocks are found mainly in west Sarawak and moderate to low quality sedimentary/metamorphic rocks such as sandstone, limestone and gravel in central-north Sarawak. Limestone are abundantly found in west Sarawak and large deposits occurs in the Bau, Kuap, Penrissen, Subis, Batu Gading and Melinau aresa - most are suitable for cement manufacture.

Other minerals of minor importance include antimony, mercury, bauxite, iron, copper, manganese, phosphate and dolomite.

FRANKIE 发表于 2008-9-29 11:08:40

Topography & Climate
Topography
In Peninsular Malaysia a mountainous spine known as the Main Range or Banjaran Titiwangsa runs from the Thai border southwards to Negeri Sembilan, effectively separating the eastern part of the Peninsula from the western. A considerable part of the interior of Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang is also mountainous and contains the highest peak in the Peninsula, Gunung Tahan (2187 m). As a result of the configuration of the country and of the heavy rainfall, there are many rivers which, until just over one hundred years ago, formed the main arteries for trade and travel and whose historical importance is underlined by the fact that nearly all of the states of the Peninsula take their names from the principal river in each. The longest of these rivers is the Sungai Pahang (475 km), followed by the Sungai Perak (400 km).

The rivers of Sarawak and Sabah are longer than those of the Peninsula. The longest is the Rajang of Sarawak (563 km) which is navigable for small coastal steamers as far as Kapit, 160 km upstream. One of the most prominent mountain ranges in Sabah is the Crocker Range with an average of 457 to 914 m, which separates the narrow lowland of the north-west coast from the interior. The Crocker Range culminates in Gunung Kinabalu (4101 m), the highest mountain in Malaysia and in Southeast Asia. Malaysia's third highest mountain, Gunung Tambuyukon (2579 m) is close by, while the country's second highest peak, Gunung Trus Madi (2597 m) is in the same range. In Sarawak the two highest peaks are Gunung Murud (2425 m) and Gunung Mulu (2371 m) which also boasts one of the largest natural caves in the world.

About four-fifths of Malaysia are covered by tropical rain forest. Rice cultivation is practised throughout the Peninsula but the main and traditional centres are the states of Perlis, Kedah and mainland Pulau Pinang. Newer areas for large-scale rice cultivation are also to be found in Perak, Selangor and Kelantan. Most of the larger rubber and oil palm estates are located on the West Coast of the Peninsula, as are also the nation's main tin deposits.

Climate
Malaysia lies entirely in the equatorial zone. The climate is governed by the regime of the north-east and south-west monsoons which blow alternately during the course of the year and whose existence in the days of sailing ships made the country the natural meeting and exchange point for traders from East and West. The north-east monsoon blows from approximately mid November till March, and the south-west monsoon between May and September, the periods of change between the two monsoons being marked by heavy rainfall. The period of the south-west monsoon is a drier period for the whole country, particularly for the other states of the west coast of the Peninsula, sheltered by the land mass of Sumatra. Being in the tropics the average temperature throughout the year is constantly high (26o C). The diurnal temperature range is about 7o C. Regional variation in temperature and rainfall is mainly due to relief, e.g. Cameron Highlands has a mean temperature of 18% C and an annual rainfall of over 2500 mm compared to Kuala Lumpur's 27o C and 24lO mm. Near the coasts, land and sea breezes modify the temperature, while being surrounded on virtually all sides by sea results in the Peninsula's rather equable climate. Mornings are generally fine and convectional rainfalls in the late afternoons are often accompanied by lightning and thunder. The humidity is high (about 80%) due to the high temperature and a high rate of evaporation, and the rainfall is heavy (more than 2500 mm)

FRANKIE 发表于 2008-9-29 11:12:56

Malaysian Histrory
The course of Malaysian history has been determined by its strategic position at one of the world's major crossroads, its tropical climate, the surrounding environment and the regime of the north-east and south-west monsoons.

Its position and other geographical circumstances made the country a natural meeting place for traders from the East and the West. The lush tropical forest and the abundance of life existing in it and in the surrounding water made Malaysia an easy place for the settlement and sustenance of small, self-supporting human communities. At the same time the thick jungle and mountainous terrain of the interior inhibited communication, while the absence of broad, flood-proned river valleys and deltas precluded the development of elaborate systems of water control such as those upon which the civilisations of Java and the Southeast Asian mainland came to be based. In contrast Malaysia's development has come from the sea. Its inhabitants quickly acquired a skill and reputation as sailors and navigators. Subsequent trading contacts have been responsible for the waves of outside influences which have modified their way of life.

Early Settlement
Nature's bounty no doubt accounts for the fact that Malaysia was one of the earliest homes of Man. Stone implements found at Lenggong in Perak and the remarkable finds in the Niah Cave of Sarawak provide evidence for this.

The earliest of the present-day inhabitants of Malaysia are the orang asli of the Peninsula and people such as the Penan of Sarawak and the Rungus of Sabah, many of whom still pursue a largely nomadic way of life. Their presence in the country probably dates back to over 5000 years. These early settlers were probably the pioneers of the movement of peoples southwards from China and Tibet through Mainland Southeast Asia and the Malay Peninsula to the Indonesian Archipelago and beyond. The next arrivals to the country, the Malays, represented the second and third wave of this movement.

The first Malay settlers (the Proto-Malays) had probably established themselves here by 1000 BC. This movements were followed by other waves of immigrants (the Deutero- Malays) over the next few centuries, who came equipped with more advanced farming techniques and new knowledge of metals. The Malay peoples also spread out into the islands of the archipelago, settling down into small self-contained communities which gave rise to the complex and variegated ethnic pattern of Malaysia and Indonesia today. The Malays of the Peninsula had their closest affinities with the Malays of Sumatra, and for centuries the Straits of Melaka did not form a dividing line between two nations but served as a corridor linking different parts of the same family. Until recent times the Malays and Malay-related inhabitants of the area remained politically fragmented, but they shared a common culture. Together with the orang asli they make up the indigenous peoples of Malaysia today, and are classified as "sons of the soil" or Bumiputera. Despite the considerable differences between the various Bumiputera groups, they all share certain characteristics which are the hallmarks of the indigenous culture of Southeast Asia. These characteristics are rooted in an agrarian-maritime economy and reflected in a village society where leadership was largely through consensus and those attitudes were informed by a belief in an all-pervasive spiritual world. Although the culture of the Malays in particular came to be overlaid by Hiduism and then prevaded by Islam, elements of this basic culture still persist.

FRANKIE 发表于 2008-9-29 11:13:24

Malaysian History Part 2: Influences & Colonialism
HINDU-BUDDHIST INFLUENCES
A new phase in the historical development of the inhabitants of Malaysia began around the first century BC with the establishment of regular trading contacts with the world beyond Southeast Asia, specifically China and the sub-continent of India. Although Chinese contacts started as early as, if not predating those of India, it was the Hindu and Buddhist elements of Indian culture which made a major impact on the region. Over a period of a thousand years these influences gradually made themselves- selves be felt, and have left their marks in the native language, literature and social custom. During this Hindu- Buddhist period which was marked by a tremendous growth in the East-West trade, the shadowy outlines of the first political units emerged in the Peninsula and in Kalimantan. However, for the greater part of this time the inhabitants of the area were subjected to the sway of either Javanese or Sumatran power The most tangible evidence of the Hindu-Buddhist period in Malaysian history is now to be found in the temple sites of Lembah Bujang and Kuala Merbok in Kedah.

ISLAMISATION AND THE MELAKA SULTANATE
The Hindu-Buddhist period of Malaysian history ended with the penetration of Islam into the area. Brought primarily by Indian and Arab traders, there is evidence of the presence of the new religion in the region as early as the thirteentl1 century. After 1400, Islam became a major influence with the conversion of the Malay-Hindu rulers of Melaka. From Melaka, Islam spread to other parts of the Malay Peninsula and to the Malay states in Sumatra and along the trade routes throughout the Indonesian archipelago. Once established as the religion of the Malays, Islam profoundly affected Malay society and the Malay way of life.After the collapse of Melaka, the sultanate of Brunei in Kalimantan rose to become the principal agent for the propagation of Islam in that area.

The Malay kingdom of Melaka which dominated both sides of the Straits of Melaka for a hundred years marked the classical age of Malay culture . Most of the Malay States of the Peninsula today can trace their genesis back to the Melaka sultanate. In Kalimantan the inhabitants of modern Sabah and Sarawak lived an autonomous existence although the ancient kingdom of Brunei exercised a general sway over them until the end of the nineteenth century.

EUROPEAN PENETRATION AND COLONIALISM
Both the Melaka and Brunei empires were shattered by the coming of the Europeans into the region. Melaka fell to a sudden Portugese assault in 1511. The power of Brunei was crippled in its infancy by the establishment of the Spaniards in the Philippines and by the rise of Dutch power in Java. Johor tried to take the place of Melaka but was restricted not only by the Euro peans, but also by the activities of local rivals such as the Achinese, Minangkabau and the Bugis. As a result, the present-day States of the Peninsula gradually emerged as sovereign units in their own right.

Despite their technological superiority, European power in the region remained restricted until the British intrusion at the end of the eighteenth century which brought the resources and organisation of the Industrial Revolution. From their new bases of Pulau Pinang (1786), Singapore (1819) and Melaka (1824), which became known collectively as the Straits Settlements, their influence and power spread into the Malay Peninsula, and the process of political integration of the Malay States of the Peninsula into a modern nation-state began. In 1824 the Malay world was arbitrarily divided into British and Dutch spheres of influence (i.e. by the Anglo-Dutch treaty of that year). In 1874 the British took the first steps towards bringing the peninsula States under their direct supervision when they imposed the Pangkor Treaty on the rulers of Perak and made similar arrangements in Selangor. Meanwhile in Kalimantan, the States of Sarawak and Sabah were beginning to take shape as British adventurers acquired the territories at the expense of the Brunei sultanate. By 1914 the political organisation of the present-day states of Malaysia was as follows:
The Straits Settlements : British crown colony headed by a British governor, consisting of Singapore, Melaka, Pulau Pinang, Labuan, the Cocos Isles and Christmas Isle. Capital: Singapore.
The Federated Malay States : British protectorate headed by a British High Commissioner (Governor of the Straits Settlements); consisting of the States of Negeri Sembflan, Pahang, Perak and Selangor.
The Unfederated Malay States : British protectorate under the tutelage of a British Adviser in each State responsible to the British Commissioner, consisting of Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis and Terengganu.
Sarawak : British protectorate ruled by the Brooke family. Capital: Kuching.
Sabah : British protectorate, ruled by the Chartered Company of the British North Borneo. Capital: Jesselton (Kota Kinabalu).

FRANKIE 发表于 2008-9-29 11:14:32

Malaysian History Part 3: Conquest & Independence
THE JAPANESES CONQUEST AND ITS AFTERMATH
The Japanese invasion of Malaya and British Borneo in late 1941, which culminated in the humiliating British surrender in Singapore two and a half months later, shattered Western colonial supremacy and unleashed the forces of incipient nationalism. Although the British were able to resume their authority in the region after the collapse of Japan in 1945, they faced an entirely new political situation and those circumstances forced them to adopt new policies. As a result the Straits Settlements were dissolved. Pulau Pinang and Melaka were joined with the Malay States of the Peninsula to form a new Malayan Union. Singapore became a separate crown colony and so did both Sarawak and British North Borneo in place of the former Brooke and Chartered Company regimes. Labuan was joined to British North Borneo.

These new arrangements met with considerable Malaysian opposition. In Sarawak a strong campaign developed opposing the crown colony status and culminated in the assassination of the second British governor (1949). But the most serious opposition was in the Malay Peninsula against the Malayan Union which reduced the status of the Malay States virtually to that of a British colony. Consequently, the British were obliged to abandon the Malayan Union scheme, and in 1948 in its place established the Federation of Malaya, after protracted negotiations with the Malay Rulers, the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) and other parties concerned. The new Federation consisted of all the nine Malay states of the Peninsula, along with Melaka and Pulau Pinang, united under a federal government in Kuala Lumpur headed by a British High Commissioner.

MALAYAN INDEPENDENCE
By the Agreement of 1948 the British had committed themselves to preparing the way for the Federation's independence. Under the twin pressures of a communist rebellion (the Emergency) and the development of a strong Malay nationalist movement (represented by UMNO), the British introduced elections, starting at local level in 1951. The problem of obtaining political cooperation among the main ethnic groups in the country to fight for independence was resolved by the successful establishment of an alliance between UMNO and the Malayan Chinese Association (MCA), the two principal communal parties, in the same year, which was subsequently joined by the Malayan Indian Congress (MIC).

When the first federal elections were held in 1955, the UMNO-MCA-MIC Alliance, headed by Tunku Abdul Rahman, won an overwhelming victory (51 out of the 52 seats contested), and the Tunku was appointed the Federation's first Chief Minister. The Alliance was successful in pressuring the British to relinquish their sovereignty in August 1957.

In the meantime slower constitutional progress had been taking place under British colonial rule in Singapore, Sarawak and Sabah. In 1955 Singapore was granted internal autonomy (the Rendel Constitution) and had its first Chief Minister (David Marshall). By 1959 Singapore had achieved full internal self-government and was led by the Peoples' Action Party (PAP) under Lee Kuan Yew. In Sarawak local elections were introduced in 1959.


TOWARDS MALAYSIA
The first move towards the formation of Malaysia came in 1961 when the idea for the formation of a wider federation comprising the Federation of Malaya, Singapore and the Kalimantan States (including Brunei) was mooted by Tunku Abdul Rahman in a speech in Singapore. The Tunku's proposal received mixed reception. It was generally popular in Malaya and Singapore but raised doubts in Sabah and Sarawak. It also quickly aroused opposition from the Philippines which asserted a claim over British North Borneo (Sabah) and from Indonesia where it was viewed as a "neo-colonialist" plot by Sukarno and the powerful Indonesian Communist Party. However, the proposal had the immediate effect of accelerating constitutional development in Sarawak, Sabah and Brunei. Elections were held for the first time in Brunei and in Sabah in 1962. A joint Anglo-Malayan commission headed by a former governor of the Bank of England, Lord Cobbold, visited Sabah and Sarawak in 1962 and reported that the majority in both states favoured the formation of Malaysia. However, continued Philippine and Indonesian opposition led to the sending of a United Nations mission to Borneo in 1963, which also reported that public opinion was in favour of joining Malaysia. Consequently, on 16 September 1963, Malaysia was formally promulgated, although without Brunei which by this time had declined to join.
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MALAYSIA, 1963 -
The first few years of Malaysia were taken up by a serious challenge to its survival, mainly from Indonesia whose policy of confrontation took the form of armed attacks on the Peninsula and across the land frontiers of Sabah and Sarawak. Confrontation was finally brought to an end by an agreement signed in Bangkok in 1966, while the Philippines gave its formal recognition to Malaysia the same year. In the meantime, however, (i.e. in 1965) Singapore ceased to be a member of the Malaysian federation and became an independent state.

In the seven general elections which have been held since the formation of Malaysia (the most recent being in 1990), the ruling coalition of political parties- formerly the Alliance, but expanded in 1971 to become the Barisan Nasional-has easily retained its majority in parliament. However, in 1969 for the first and up till now the only time, the coalition lost its overall two- thirds majority. Communal tensions resulted in the 13 May 1969 incident in Kuala Lumpur, leading to the establishment of an emergency government-the National Operations Council. Parliamentary rule was resumed in 1971. Since then the broad aim of the administration has been the fulfilment of the New Economic Policy which is designed to eradicate poverty regardless of race, and to eliminate the identification of occupation with race.

The economic prosperity achieved in the 1970s enabled the administration of Tun Abdul Razak, who succeeded Tunk u Abdul Rahman as premier in 1970, and Tun Hussein Onn who took over on the death of Tun Razak in 1976 to make considerable progress towards these ends. At the same time, Malaysia established a more independent foreign policy, helping found ASEAN in 1967, recognising Communist China in t974, and identifying the nation with the non-aligned countries of the Third World. The 1980s have brought new political directions and economic challenges. The administration of Dato' Seri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad (1981) has seen the search for new sources of support and development (the Look East Policy), the initiation of a bold policy of heavy industrialisation (the national car, a steel industry and oil refineries) and an aggressive foreign policy asserting the interests of the undeveloped South versus those of the developed nations of the North. The ruling coalition of parties in the Barisan Nasional continues to dominate the political arena but a number of developments, including the coming of age of a new generation of voters, suggest that there may be changes in the traditional pattern of Malaysian politics.

FRANKIE 发表于 2008-9-29 11:16:55

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