[ 本帖最后由 FRANKIE 于 2008-9-29 11:03 编辑 ] 概說馬來西亞：
馬來西亞(Federation of Malaysia)為君主立憲，採責任內閣制之聯邦，面積為330,257平方公里，其領土包括亞洲大陸最南端之馬來半島（西馬）以及婆羅洲北部（東馬）。國民所得平均為3,255美元。人口約24,530,000人。馬來語為國語，英語及華語使用普遍。馬來人大多信仰回教，法律保障馬來人政治、經濟及教育等特權。
通訊：行動電話分GSM 900與1800 兩種系統，Maxis與Celcom為主要電信公司。台灣的中華電信、遠傳電信與台灣大哥大公司的行動電話，在此均可提供國際漫遊服務。 旅遊景點介紹
沙巴可以是马来西亚深藏未露的绝妙旅游地，见识了沙巴，你就会惊讶马来西亚丰富的旅游资源. 世外桃源邦咯岛(PangkorLaut) 寻找小丑鱼。
沙巴可以是马来西亚深藏未露的绝妙旅游地，见识了沙巴，你就会惊讶马来西亚丰富的旅游资源. 世外桃源邦咯岛(PangkorLaut) 寻找小丑鱼。
中国山又名三保山，是马来西亚为纪念中国明朝三保太监郑和而命名的。此山位于马六甲市郊。关于中国山，流传着“一位中国公主和一口神奇的井”的故事。相传在15世纪60年代，马六甲的统治者是一个年 轻而聪明过人的苏丹，曼斯国王。有一天，一艘中国船驶抵马六甲，船的内部到处插满了金针，船长给苏丹送去一封信，声称他奉中国天子之命诏告苏丹 “每一根金针代表我的一个臣民，要是你能数得清有多少根，你就会知道我的权力有多大。”苏丹接到信后，派了一艘船去送回信，船上装了好几袋谷米，信中道“要是你能数得清这艘船上的谷米，你就能准确地猜到我有多少臣民，也就会知道我的权力有多大。”
清真寺是穆斯林举行宗教仪式的地方，对外开放时，女士需穿长袍及戴头巾。否则将被拒之门外。马来人男女传统礼服分别是:男士为无领上衣，下着长裤，腰围短纱笼，头戴“宋谷”无边帽，脚穿皮鞋。女士礼服也为上衣和纱笼，衣宽如袍，头披单色鲜艳纱巾。马来人男女礼服和便服都有一个共同的特点，即又宽又长，遮手盖脚且色彩鲜艳，图案别致，样式美观。目前打工族为了工作穿着方便，一般着轻便的西服，只在工余在家或探亲访友或在重大节日时，才着传统服装。在各种正式场合，男士着装除民族服装或西服外，可穿长袖巴迪衫。巴迪衫是一种蜡染花布做成的长袖上衣，质地薄而凉爽，现已渐渐取代传统的马来礼服，成为马来西亚“国服”。在马来西亚除皇室成员外，一般不穿黄色衣饰。 Malaysian Geology
Tectonically, Peninsular Malaysia forms part of the Sunda Shield. Its Triassic fold-mountain belt, the spine of the Peninsula, continues from eastern Burma through Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, the Banka and Billiton Islands, and eastwards into Indonesian Borneo. All the systems, ranging from the Cambrian to the Quaternary, are represented in Peninsular Malaysia. The Triassic and older strata are essentially marine whereas the post- Triassic rocks are characteristically non-marine. Sedimentation was continuous throughout the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic. Because of the instability of the basin major breaks are apparent within and between the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Cainozoic groups of rocks. Granitoids occupy almost half the peninsula, commonly forming topographic highs, notably in the Main Range. The main episode of granitic emplacement coincides with the culminating late Triassic orogenic event during which all the older strata were folded and deformed.
Regional metamorphism is widespread and most of the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks show slight to moderate deformation but the grade has never been higher than green schist facies. The contact metamorphosed rocks generally form narrow aureoles around the igneous bodies. The major mineralisation occurred during the granitic emplacement and commonly associated with faulting. Faulting is common in all rocks. At least three sets of faults have been recognised on a regional scale, the youngest of which is at most post-Early Cretaceous in age.
The Machinchang Formation in the northwest part of the peninsula provides the oldest evidence of sedimentation. It consists of shallow-water, current-bedded deposits in the Langkawi Island. The extent of the basin could have transgressed as far as Malacca, by Ordovician times. By Silurian times thick successions of limestone and graptolitic shales were laid down. Volcanic activities also occurred and mainly acidic tuffs were deposited in Kedah and northern Perak. During the Devonian, sediments continued to be deposited, they occur as a thick succession of limestone in central Perak and as clastics in the northwest. East of the Main Range in the foothill regions of western Pahang and southwestern Kelantan, they consist of graptolitic shales, cherts quartzites and intraformational conglomerates with minor intrusives of ophiolitic rocks. Sediments of the Upper Paleozoic, e.g. the Kenny Hill Formation, Singa Formation, and Kati Formation are unconformable over the Lower Palaeozoic sequences.
Thick formations of Lower Carboniferous limestone in central Pahang and carbonaceous shales with limestone lenses in east Pahang provide the earliest indications of the formation of the basin to the east of the Main Range. Sedimentation here was typically shallow marine and, in Kelantan, was probably continuous till the Early Permian. The Sediments deposi ted consist of four main facies, viz: (i) argillaceous, (ii) volcanic, (iii) calcareous and (iv) arenaceous. Here, sedimentation with inter- mittent volcanism appears to have continued from Carboniferous through the Permian to the Triassic. The general relationship of the Trias with the Permian is one of unconformity. However, in Kelantan, Lower Triassic beds most probably overlie the uppermost Permian conformably. Lower Triassic limestones are common, but following that, the strata became more arenaceous and argillaceous in character. The Middle and Upper Trias are characteri s e d by a flysch-type-sedimentation . Widespread volcanic activity with the eruption of andesite and other intermediate to acid tuffs and lavas occurred in the axial basin. The Upper Triassic orogeny which was also accompanied by granitic intrusions brought an end to marine sedimentation in the Peninsula.
Post-Triassic sediments are essentially continental in character and are described as molasses. These Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous sediments in the Malay Peninsula overlie the older rocks with marked unconformity. The sedimentary basins occupy a zone on the eastern portion of the peninsula from Gunung Gagau in the north to Gunung Panti in the south. The sediments consisting essentially of sandstone, conglomerate and shales with minor coal seams and volcanics, show fluvial, lalcustrine and deltaic conditions of deposition.
The Tertiary rocks are distributed onshore as isolated lacustrine basins underlying the Quaternary deposits and offshore areas mainly as thick continental areno-argillaceous sequences. The Quaternary deposits which consist mainly of unconsolidated to semiconsolidated gravel, sand, clay and silt occupy the coastal terrains and floors of some of the inland valleys. In the Kinta and Klang Valleys, the alluvium contains valuable concentrations of tin ore.
Petroleum is the most valuable mineral resource. It is found in the Malay Basin, off the coast of Terengganu.
Tin ore is found in many parts of Peninsular Malaysia and is richest in the Kinta, Batang Padang, Batang Berjuntai and Klang Valley. Base metals like copper, lead and zinc are known in Ulu Sokor (Kelantan), Tasik Chini and the Mengapur area (Pahang). Gold is found along the central axial belt from Kelantan (Sungai Pergau, Sungai Galas) to Pahang (Merapoh, Kuala Lipis, Raub), Terengganu (Lubuk Mandi), Negeri Sembilan and Johor (Gunung Ledang).
There is potential of tungsten in Kedah and Terengganu. Iron ore is mined on a very small scale from mines in Pahang, Kedah, Perak and Johor. Very small tonnages of low-grade manganese deposits are found in Sungai Aring and Gual Periok in Kelantan and Machang Setahun in Terengganu.
Rare earth minerals such as monazite, xenotime, rutile, struverite, ilmenite and zircon are recovered as by products of tin-mining. A deposit of two million tonnes of ilrmenite are found near Kampung Ajil, Terengganu. Silica sand is exploited from beaches in Johor and mine tailings in Selangor and Perak. There is potential of high grade beach silica sand deposits in Terengganu. Barite is mined in Pahang, Kelantan and Terengganu.
Bauxite is presently mined only in Penggarang, Johor. There exist potential reserves of 17 million tonnes in the Jabor valley, Terengganu and 50 million tonnes at Bukit Goh, Pahang. Small deposits occur in Tanah Mas (Melaka), Batu Pahat, Endau, Sri Medan and Lenga in Johor. Kaolin is presently exploited in the Bidor area of Perak and the Jemaluang area of Johor. There is very good potential for ball cla y within the coastal alluvial flats of the country.
Sabah, situated at the northern tip of Borneo Island, is geologically complex. The oldest rocks are the Early Triassic metamorphic rocks (amphibolites, genisses, meta tuffaceous and meta-volcanics) of the Crystalline Basement, found mainly in eastern Sabah. Large bodies of granite, granodiorite, tonalite, ultramafic and mafic rocks intrude into the metamorphic rocks. The ultramafic bodies are distinctly elongated and commonly aligned east-west along the general metamorphic foliation trend.
During Early Cretaceous time, limestone was deposited in several localities on an emerging basement in eastern Sabah. By Late Cretaceous time, thick clastic and calcareous sediments, chert, limestone and volcanic rocks were deposited over a large part of eastern, central, and southwest Sabah and part of northern Sabah. Deposition was continuous up to Eocene time.
By early Tertiary, an elongated northeast trending marine trough already existed extending from the Kalimantan border into western and northern Sabah, and deposition of thick sequences of sandstone and mudstone occurred uninterrupted into the Upper Miocene when it was terminated by folding and uplift, accompanied by the intrusion of the Kinabahu Batholith. During this major Late Miocene tectonic event, slump deposits and pyroclastics accumulated in several deep basins in eastern Sabah, followed by the deposition of sandstone and mudstone with minor amounts of limestone and coal in a chain of circular to sub-circular shallow basins. Rapid uplift in Late Miocene time resulted in the formation of conglomerate at Lahad Datu and cessation of deposition in the area, except in the easternmost part-the Dent Peninsula-where Pliocene sediments were deposited in coastal swamps and shallow- marine waters.
From the Late Miocene to Quaternary time, extensive volcanism and associated shallow intrusions along the Semporna Peninsula and a batholith-size granitic intrusion at Gunung Kinabalu occurred. The post- tectonic volcanic rocks that erupted in the Semporna Peninsula are typical of the calc-alkaline Pacific island arc type, being rich in soda-lime feldspar and generally low in potash. The early eruptions are mainly andesite, dacite and basalt. Several volcanic cones are still recognisable, and hot springs-remnants of volcanism- occur at several places in the peninsula.
Quarternary deposits, consisting of coarse gravel, sand, silt, clay, peat and coral accumulated along the coast and are now found in raised terraces and in inland plains in Tenom, Klias, Padas valley, and the Sook- Keningau plains.
Most metallic mineral deposits and occurrences in Sabah occur along a central belt stretching from the northern islands of Banggi and Malawali, through Taritipan, Gunung Kinabalu and the Labuk valley to the upper Segama valley-Darvel Bay area and Semporna Peninsula. The only operating mine, Mamut Copper Mining Sdn. Bhd., is situated along this belt. Industrial minerals consisting mainly of limestone, silica, clay, and constructional stones are mainly found outside this belt. Oil and gas are found offshore of the east and west coasts. Coal is found in Tertiary sedimentary basins in south-central Sabah.
Mineralisation is associated with four main groups of rocks, namely, the Crystalline Basement, the ophiolite suite, the young volcanic and associated hypabyssal rocks, and the granitic intrusions.
Copper sulphides have been found in the pre- Triassic Crystalline Basement schists in the upper Segama area, and silver mineralisation is found associated with schistose and doleritic rocks of the basement. Alluvial gold occurs in several rivers, especially the Segama and Diwata rivers, which drain areas underlain by the basement rocks. The auriferous alluvium in the Segama valley also contains detrital native platinum. The sources of gold are thought to be the acidic intrusives of the Crystalline Basement.
Nickel, chromium, iron, pyrhotite, and copper sulphides are associated with the Cretaceous-Miocene ophiolitic rocks which are found in the upper Segama- Darvel Bay area, the Labuk valley, around Gunung Kinabalu, in Taritipan, and in the northern islands. Platinum group metals occur as inclusions in chromite found associated with the basic igneous rocks of the ophiolite suite. Bauxite is developed from these rocks in places; in Sungai Mansan it is formed from gabbro.
Epithermal gold and lead-zinc-copper mineralisations are found in the Pliocene volcanic rocks and associated hypabyssal rocks in the Semporna Peninsula (Bukit Mantri and Nagos). Porphyry copper deposits at Mamut and Gunung Nungkok are closely associated with Miocene-Pliocene granitic intrusions in the Kinabalu area.
Montmorillonitic clay is found in the Miocene volcano-sedimentary strata in the Sandakan, Dent Peninsula and Tawau areas, and kaolinitic clay in the Plio- Pleistocene formations on the south west coast of Sabah.
Only one metalliferous deposit is being mined at present. Several other promising deposits, such as the Gunung Nungkok Copper Prospect, the Tavai nickeliferous iron deposit, and the Karang Copper Prospect, have been investigated in detail, but were found to be uneconomic to mine at present. Two Cyprus-type massive sulphide deposits in the lower Labuk valley (west Sualog and Kiabau) were discovered during 1983 to 1985. Many coal seams, some of economic thickness, were discovered in the Maliau Basin and surrounding Tertiary sedimentary strata in recent years. Numerous other occurrences of copper, asbestos, chromium, gold, iron, nickel, lead, zinc, silica, and manganese have also been found. Oil and gas are found on the west and east coasts. Oil production started in 1974 from an offshore well on the west coast where all the present producing wells are situated.
In Sarawak, the oldest formations go back only some 300 million years, and so barely one-sixth of the world's recorded geological history is represented here. These ancient rocks form part of the West Borneo Basement which is the exposed part of the Sunda Shield in Southwest Borneo, and is thus related to continental South-East Asia. The Basement is built up of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks. Most of Sarawak, however, is underlain by younger Tertiary sedimentary rocks especially the region northeast of the Lupar river.
Among the more prominent geomorphorlogical landforms are the many caves developed in limestone formations including the famed Niah Caves and Mulu Caves; and the high waterfalls developed over Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Usun Apau Plateau and Hose Mountains in the interior of the state.
The Mulu Caves developed in the Melinau Limestone of Tertiary age stakes its claim as one of the most spectacular cave systems of the world. Located in the Mulu National Park, some 100 km west of Miri town, it boasts of having the world's largest cave passage (the Deer Cave). the world's largest natural rock chamber (the Sarawak Chamber) and the longest cave system in South- East Asia (the Clearwater Cave).
Petroleum and gas are by far the most important min eral resources and production comes from offshore fields in the northern part of the state.
Gold is mined in the Bau area and there is potential for further discoveries in old gold workings in the area, and in the Lundu-Sematan and Marup areas of west Sarawak.
Coal is abundantly found in the state and occurs in four main Tertiary coal basins: the Silantek, the MeritPila, the Mukah-Balingian and the Bintulu coal fields. A total resource of about 730 million tonnes have been identified of which 171 million tonnes are measured reserve, 101 tonnes indicated and 456 tonnes inferred Coal from the Merit-Pila field is presently being mined whereas redevelopment of the underground mine at Silantek is currently being undertaken.
To date (1995), 42 deposits of mainly high quality silica sand with an estimated reserve of about 54 million tonnes have been identified in the state. The deposits are found chiefly in the coastal region of the Kuching (Lundu-Semantan), Samarahan (Roban), Sibu (Lebaan), Bintulu (Bintulu, Suai, Similijau) and Miri (Baram valley) Divisions. Silica sand is presently be mined and processed by two plants located in the Bintulu and Lundu-Semantan areas and up to 1994 about 3.4 million tonnes of processed silice sand have been exported.
Kaolinitic and ball clays suitable for use in the ceramic and related industries are extensively found in the Kuching, Sarikei and Sibu Divisions. To date (1995), 9 deposits of kaolinitic clay with an estimated reserve of about 22 million tonnes and 24 deposits of ball clay with an estimated reserve of about 38 million tonnes have been identified.The major deposits are found in the Balai Ringin-Abok are (19 millions tonnes, kaolinitic clay), Sarikei-Bintangor are (18 millions tonnes, ball clay) and Sibu area (16 millions tonnes, ball clay).
Constructional stones of several rocks types including igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are quarried for use by the constructional industry. Good quality igneous rocks are found mainly in west Sarawak and moderate to low quality sedimentary/metamorphic rocks such as sandstone, limestone and gravel in central-north Sarawak. Limestone are abundantly found in west Sarawak and large deposits occurs in the Bau, Kuap, Penrissen, Subis, Batu Gading and Melinau aresa - most are suitable for cement manufacture.
Other minerals of minor importance include antimony, mercury, bauxite, iron, copper, manganese, phosphate and dolomite. Topography & Climate
In Peninsular Malaysia a mountainous spine known as the Main Range or Banjaran Titiwangsa runs from the Thai border southwards to Negeri Sembilan, effectively separating the eastern part of the Peninsula from the western. A considerable part of the interior of Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang is also mountainous and contains the highest peak in the Peninsula, Gunung Tahan (2187 m). As a result of the configuration of the country and of the heavy rainfall, there are many rivers which, until just over one hundred years ago, formed the main arteries for trade and travel and whose historical importance is underlined by the fact that nearly all of the states of the Peninsula take their names from the principal river in each. The longest of these rivers is the Sungai Pahang (475 km), followed by the Sungai Perak (400 km).
The rivers of Sarawak and Sabah are longer than those of the Peninsula. The longest is the Rajang of Sarawak (563 km) which is navigable for small coastal steamers as far as Kapit, 160 km upstream. One of the most prominent mountain ranges in Sabah is the Crocker Range with an average of 457 to 914 m, which separates the narrow lowland of the north-west coast from the interior. The Crocker Range culminates in Gunung Kinabalu (4101 m), the highest mountain in Malaysia and in Southeast Asia. Malaysia's third highest mountain, Gunung Tambuyukon (2579 m) is close by, while the country's second highest peak, Gunung Trus Madi (2597 m) is in the same range. In Sarawak the two highest peaks are Gunung Murud (2425 m) and Gunung Mulu (2371 m) which also boasts one of the largest natural caves in the world.
About four-fifths of Malaysia are covered by tropical rain forest. Rice cultivation is practised throughout the Peninsula but the main and traditional centres are the states of Perlis, Kedah and mainland Pulau Pinang. Newer areas for large-scale rice cultivation are also to be found in Perak, Selangor and Kelantan. Most of the larger rubber and oil palm estates are located on the West Coast of the Peninsula, as are also the nation's main tin deposits.
Malaysia lies entirely in the equatorial zone. The climate is governed by the regime of the north-east and south-west monsoons which blow alternately during the course of the year and whose existence in the days of sailing ships made the country the natural meeting and exchange point for traders from East and West. The north-east monsoon blows from approximately mid November till March, and the south-west monsoon between May and September, the periods of change between the two monsoons being marked by heavy rainfall. The period of the south-west monsoon is a drier period for the whole country, particularly for the other states of the west coast of the Peninsula, sheltered by the land mass of Sumatra. Being in the tropics the average temperature throughout the year is constantly high (26o C). The diurnal temperature range is about 7o C. Regional variation in temperature and rainfall is mainly due to relief, e.g. Cameron Highlands has a mean temperature of 18% C and an annual rainfall of over 2500 mm compared to Kuala Lumpur's 27o C and 24lO mm. Near the coasts, land and sea breezes modify the temperature, while being surrounded on virtually all sides by sea results in the Peninsula's rather equable climate. Mornings are generally fine and convectional rainfalls in the late afternoons are often accompanied by lightning and thunder. The humidity is high (about 80%) due to the high temperature and a high rate of evaporation, and the rainfall is heavy (more than 2500 mm) Malaysian Histrory
The course of Malaysian history has been determined by its strategic position at one of the world's major crossroads, its tropical climate, the surrounding environment and the regime of the north-east and south-west monsoons.
Its position and other geographical circumstances made the country a natural meeting place for traders from the East and the West. The lush tropical forest and the abundance of life existing in it and in the surrounding water made Malaysia an easy place for the settlement and sustenance of small, self-supporting human communities. At the same time the thick jungle and mountainous terrain of the interior inhibited communication, while the absence of broad, flood-proned river valleys and deltas precluded the development of elaborate systems of water control such as those upon which the civilisations of Java and the Southeast Asian mainland came to be based. In contrast Malaysia's development has come from the sea. Its inhabitants quickly acquired a skill and reputation as sailors and navigators. Subsequent trading contacts have been responsible for the waves of outside influences which have modified their way of life.
Nature's bounty no doubt accounts for the fact that Malaysia was one of the earliest homes of Man. Stone implements found at Lenggong in Perak and the remarkable finds in the Niah Cave of Sarawak provide evidence for this.
The earliest of the present-day inhabitants of Malaysia are the orang asli of the Peninsula and people such as the Penan of Sarawak and the Rungus of Sabah, many of whom still pursue a largely nomadic way of life. Their presence in the country probably dates back to over 5000 years. These early settlers were probably the pioneers of the movement of peoples southwards from China and Tibet through Mainland Southeast Asia and the Malay Peninsula to the Indonesian Archipelago and beyond. The next arrivals to the country, the Malays, represented the second and third wave of this movement.
The first Malay settlers (the Proto-Malays) had probably established themselves here by 1000 BC. This movements were followed by other waves of immigrants (the Deutero- Malays) over the next few centuries, who came equipped with more advanced farming techniques and new knowledge of metals. The Malay peoples also spread out into the islands of the archipelago, settling down into small self-contained communities which gave rise to the complex and variegated ethnic pattern of Malaysia and Indonesia today. The Malays of the Peninsula had their closest affinities with the Malays of Sumatra, and for centuries the Straits of Melaka did not form a dividing line between two nations but served as a corridor linking different parts of the same family. Until recent times the Malays and Malay-related inhabitants of the area remained politically fragmented, but they shared a common culture. Together with the orang asli they make up the indigenous peoples of Malaysia today, and are classified as "sons of the soil" or Bumiputera. Despite the considerable differences between the various Bumiputera groups, they all share certain characteristics which are the hallmarks of the indigenous culture of Southeast Asia. These characteristics are rooted in an agrarian-maritime economy and reflected in a village society where leadership was largely through consensus and those attitudes were informed by a belief in an all-pervasive spiritual world. Although the culture of the Malays in particular came to be overlaid by Hiduism and then prevaded by Islam, elements of this basic culture still persist. Malaysian History Part 2: Influences & Colonialism
A new phase in the historical development of the inhabitants of Malaysia began around the first century BC with the establishment of regular trading contacts with the world beyond Southeast Asia, specifically China and the sub-continent of India. Although Chinese contacts started as early as, if not predating those of India, it was the Hindu and Buddhist elements of Indian culture which made a major impact on the region. Over a period of a thousand years these influences gradually made themselves- selves be felt, and have left their marks in the native language, literature and social custom. During this Hindu- Buddhist period which was marked by a tremendous growth in the East-West trade, the shadowy outlines of the first political units emerged in the Peninsula and in Kalimantan. However, for the greater part of this time the inhabitants of the area were subjected to the sway of either Javanese or Sumatran power The most tangible evidence of the Hindu-Buddhist period in Malaysian history is now to be found in the temple sites of Lembah Bujang and Kuala Merbok in Kedah.
ISLAMISATION AND THE MELAKA SULTANATE
The Hindu-Buddhist period of Malaysian history ended with the penetration of Islam into the area. Brought primarily by Indian and Arab traders, there is evidence of the presence of the new religion in the region as early as the thirteentl1 century. After 1400, Islam became a major influence with the conversion of the Malay-Hindu rulers of Melaka. From Melaka, Islam spread to other parts of the Malay Peninsula and to the Malay states in Sumatra and along the trade routes throughout the Indonesian archipelago. Once established as the religion of the Malays, Islam profoundly affected Malay society and the Malay way of life.After the collapse of Melaka, the sultanate of Brunei in Kalimantan rose to become the principal agent for the propagation of Islam in that area.
The Malay kingdom of Melaka which dominated both sides of the Straits of Melaka for a hundred years marked the classical age of Malay culture . Most of the Malay States of the Peninsula today can trace their genesis back to the Melaka sultanate. In Kalimantan the inhabitants of modern Sabah and Sarawak lived an autonomous existence although the ancient kingdom of Brunei exercised a general sway over them until the end of the nineteenth century.
EUROPEAN PENETRATION AND COLONIALISM
Both the Melaka and Brunei empires were shattered by the coming of the Europeans into the region. Melaka fell to a sudden Portugese assault in 1511. The power of Brunei was crippled in its infancy by the establishment of the Spaniards in the Philippines and by the rise of Dutch power in Java. Johor tried to take the place of Melaka but was restricted not only by the Euro peans, but also by the activities of local rivals such as the Achinese, Minangkabau and the Bugis. As a result, the present-day States of the Peninsula gradually emerged as sovereign units in their own right.
Despite their technological superiority, European power in the region remained restricted until the British intrusion at the end of the eighteenth century which brought the resources and organisation of the Industrial Revolution. From their new bases of Pulau Pinang (1786), Singapore (1819) and Melaka (1824), which became known collectively as the Straits Settlements, their influence and power spread into the Malay Peninsula, and the process of political integration of the Malay States of the Peninsula into a modern nation-state began. In 1824 the Malay world was arbitrarily divided into British and Dutch spheres of influence (i.e. by the Anglo-Dutch treaty of that year). In 1874 the British took the first steps towards bringing the peninsula States under their direct supervision when they imposed the Pangkor Treaty on the rulers of Perak and made similar arrangements in Selangor. Meanwhile in Kalimantan, the States of Sarawak and Sabah were beginning to take shape as British adventurers acquired the territories at the expense of the Brunei sultanate. By 1914 the political organisation of the present-day states of Malaysia was as follows:
The Straits Settlements : British crown colony headed by a British governor, consisting of Singapore, Melaka, Pulau Pinang, Labuan, the Cocos Isles and Christmas Isle. Capital: Singapore.
The Federated Malay States : British protectorate headed by a British High Commissioner (Governor of the Straits Settlements); consisting of the States of Negeri Sembflan, Pahang, Perak and Selangor.
The Unfederated Malay States : British protectorate under the tutelage of a British Adviser in each State responsible to the British Commissioner, consisting of Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis and Terengganu.
Sarawak : British protectorate ruled by the Brooke family. Capital: Kuching.
Sabah : British protectorate, ruled by the Chartered Company of the British North Borneo. Capital: Jesselton (Kota Kinabalu). Malaysian History Part 3: Conquest & Independence
THE JAPANESES CONQUEST AND ITS AFTERMATH
The Japanese invasion of Malaya and British Borneo in late 1941, which culminated in the humiliating British surrender in Singapore two and a half months later, shattered Western colonial supremacy and unleashed the forces of incipient nationalism. Although the British were able to resume their authority in the region after the collapse of Japan in 1945, they faced an entirely new political situation and those circumstances forced them to adopt new policies. As a result the Straits Settlements were dissolved. Pulau Pinang and Melaka were joined with the Malay States of the Peninsula to form a new Malayan Union. Singapore became a separate crown colony and so did both Sarawak and British North Borneo in place of the former Brooke and Chartered Company regimes. Labuan was joined to British North Borneo.
These new arrangements met with considerable Malaysian opposition. In Sarawak a strong campaign developed opposing the crown colony status and culminated in the assassination of the second British governor (1949). But the most serious opposition was in the Malay Peninsula against the Malayan Union which reduced the status of the Malay States virtually to that of a British colony. Consequently, the British were obliged to abandon the Malayan Union scheme, and in 1948 in its place established the Federation of Malaya, after protracted negotiations with the Malay Rulers, the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) and other parties concerned. The new Federation consisted of all the nine Malay states of the Peninsula, along with Melaka and Pulau Pinang, united under a federal government in Kuala Lumpur headed by a British High Commissioner.
By the Agreement of 1948 the British had committed themselves to preparing the way for the Federation's independence. Under the twin pressures of a communist rebellion (the Emergency) and the development of a strong Malay nationalist movement (represented by UMNO), the British introduced elections, starting at local level in 1951. The problem of obtaining political cooperation among the main ethnic groups in the country to fight for independence was resolved by the successful establishment of an alliance between UMNO and the Malayan Chinese Association (MCA), the two principal communal parties, in the same year, which was subsequently joined by the Malayan Indian Congress (MIC).
When the first federal elections were held in 1955, the UMNO-MCA-MIC Alliance, headed by Tunku Abdul Rahman, won an overwhelming victory (51 out of the 52 seats contested), and the Tunku was appointed the Federation's first Chief Minister. The Alliance was successful in pressuring the British to relinquish their sovereignty in August 1957.
In the meantime slower constitutional progress had been taking place under British colonial rule in Singapore, Sarawak and Sabah. In 1955 Singapore was granted internal autonomy (the Rendel Constitution) and had its first Chief Minister (David Marshall). By 1959 Singapore had achieved full internal self-government and was led by the Peoples' Action Party (PAP) under Lee Kuan Yew. In Sarawak local elections were introduced in 1959.
The first move towards the formation of Malaysia came in 1961 when the idea for the formation of a wider federation comprising the Federation of Malaya, Singapore and the Kalimantan States (including Brunei) was mooted by Tunku Abdul Rahman in a speech in Singapore. The Tunku's proposal received mixed reception. It was generally popular in Malaya and Singapore but raised doubts in Sabah and Sarawak. It also quickly aroused opposition from the Philippines which asserted a claim over British North Borneo (Sabah) and from Indonesia where it was viewed as a "neo-colonialist" plot by Sukarno and the powerful Indonesian Communist Party. However, the proposal had the immediate effect of accelerating constitutional development in Sarawak, Sabah and Brunei. Elections were held for the first time in Brunei and in Sabah in 1962. A joint Anglo-Malayan commission headed by a former governor of the Bank of England, Lord Cobbold, visited Sabah and Sarawak in 1962 and reported that the majority in both states favoured the formation of Malaysia. However, continued Philippine and Indonesian opposition led to the sending of a United Nations mission to Borneo in 1963, which also reported that public opinion was in favour of joining Malaysia. Consequently, on 16 September 1963, Malaysia was formally promulgated, although without Brunei which by this time had declined to join.
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MALAYSIA, 1963 -
The first few years of Malaysia were taken up by a serious challenge to its survival, mainly from Indonesia whose policy of confrontation took the form of armed attacks on the Peninsula and across the land frontiers of Sabah and Sarawak. Confrontation was finally brought to an end by an agreement signed in Bangkok in 1966, while the Philippines gave its formal recognition to Malaysia the same year. In the meantime, however, (i.e. in 1965) Singapore ceased to be a member of the Malaysian federation and became an independent state.
In the seven general elections which have been held since the formation of Malaysia (the most recent being in 1990), the ruling coalition of political parties- formerly the Alliance, but expanded in 1971 to become the Barisan Nasional-has easily retained its majority in parliament. However, in 1969 for the first and up till now the only time, the coalition lost its overall two- thirds majority. Communal tensions resulted in the 13 May 1969 incident in Kuala Lumpur, leading to the establishment of an emergency government-the National Operations Council. Parliamentary rule was resumed in 1971. Since then the broad aim of the administration has been the fulfilment of the New Economic Policy which is designed to eradicate poverty regardless of race, and to eliminate the identification of occupation with race.
The economic prosperity achieved in the 1970s enabled the administration of Tun Abdul Razak, who succeeded Tunk u Abdul Rahman as premier in 1970, and Tun Hussein Onn who took over on the death of Tun Razak in 1976 to make considerable progress towards these ends. At the same time, Malaysia established a more independent foreign policy, helping found ASEAN in 1967, recognising Communist China in t974, and identifying the nation with the non-aligned countries of the Third World. The 1980s have brought new political directions and economic challenges. The administration of Dato' Seri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad (1981) has seen the search for new sources of support and development (the Look East Policy), the initiation of a bold policy of heavy industrialisation (the national car, a steel industry and oil refineries) and an aggressive foreign policy asserting the interests of the undeveloped South versus those of the developed nations of the North. The ruling coalition of parties in the Barisan Nasional continues to dominate the political arena but a number of developments, including the coming of age of a new generation of voters, suggest that there may be changes in the traditional pattern of Malaysian politics. 在马来西亚，您可以选择在大城市中享受难以置信的多样式购物机会、娱乐生活及高雅住宿，或者选择充满喜悦的躺在白沙滩上，观赏纯朴的乡村景色。或者您也可以选择去享受环保旅游及爬本区域最高的山，哥打京那巴鲁山、去西必洛SEPILOK看“红毛猩猩”、或去西巴单潜水。任何人都可以在马来西亚找到所要的东西，不论您是历史学家、生意人、背囊行人、生态旅游家、城市玩家或沙滩冲浪家。